Thyroid Hormones Roles & Functions
Thyroid hormones are the major Endocrine regulators of metabolic processes and many organ systems of the body. It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for Thyroid hormones. Therefore, a deficiency of thyroid hormones is not compatible with normal health & wellness.
Thyroid hormones significantly help improve energy and relieve fatigue. T3 plays an important role in burning body fat and improving Cholesterol levels, thereby protecting against Cardiovascular disease. It improves Brain metabolism and thereby prevents Dementia and memory impairment.
The various Organ systems affected by Thyroid hormones are tabulated (Table 1) as below:
Factors Controlling Thyroid Hormones
Maintaining a proper balance (Homeostasis) of Thyroid hormones is achieved by a very complex interplay of several factors as seen in Figure 1 below.
Several Nutritional factors are important for the production and proper functioning of Thyroid Hormones:
- TSH needs Protein, Magnesium, Vitamin B12 and Zinc.
- T4 needs Iodine, Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and Vitamin C.
- Conversion of T4 to T3 requires Selenium, Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin B3, B6, C, D, E
- Binding of T3 to the Nuclear receptors of Cells needs Vitamin A & D
Fluoride (Drinking water and Toothpaste) and Bromide (Pesticides, Plastics, Bakery goods & Flours, Soda, Atrovent Inhaler / Nasal spray, Fire retardants used in Carpets, Mattresses) compete with Iodine and thereby reduce T4 & T3 production.
It is important to note that Aging, Stress, Infections, toxins (Mercury, BPA in plastic, Lead) can decrease thyroid hormone production.
Stress releases excessive Cortisol which inhibits conversion of T4 to T3 and suppresses TSH.
Gut Bacteria convert the Inactive forms T3S and T3AC into T3. When there is an alteration of Gut bacteria (Dysbiosis) the conversion of T3S and T3AC is impaired.
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